Vitamins and Minerals


Comments Off on Vitamins and Minerals | Last Update: April 18, 2012


Excerpt From: Live Longer & Healthier Eating Foods You Love

 

There is increasing evidence multivitamins do not protect against cancer, heart disease and premature death. Researchers from the government funded Women’s Heath Imitative studying more than 161,000 women found found no disease preventing benefits between women who took a multivitamin and those who did not.

Consumer Reports on Health – May 2009

 

Vitamin and mineral supplements are a multi-billion dollar a year business. Some health and nutrition specialists say they are essential for good health while others claim they are unnecessary for a healthy person eating a balanced diet. The key words here arehealthy and balanced diet. Vitamins and minerals sold over-the-counter are classified as dietary supplements. It is possible to eat a diet with the right proportions of carbohydrates, protein and fat and still not get all the vitamins and minerals your body needs. For example, citrus, broccoli, bell peppers and Brussel sprouts are high in vitamin C. You can develop vitamin C deficiency by not eating enough foods high in vitamin C. Hundreds of years ago sailors on long voyages developed scurry which was linked to a vitamin C deficiency. Limes and other citrus became a necessity on long voyages. The term limey originated when British sailors on long voyages carried limes on board to prevent scurvy. Vitamin D deficiency causes pernicious anemia and reduced calcium absorption. Diets high in processed foods and fast foods can cause a vitamin or mineral deficiency.

Taking supplements can prevent diseases associated with vitamin and mineral deficiencies. But obtaining a majority of your vitamins and minerals from supplements or taking too high a dose can cause series health problems and in some cases death. Vitamins and minerals can be toxic in high doses. The table below lists vitamins and minerals your body needs and their primary roles. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) is based on scientific research and presented by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Science. To make matters more confusing, in 1993 the FDA establish the U.S. Recommended DAILY Allowance (US RDA) as a reference for nutrition labeling. The US RDA includes a safety factor which exceeds the actual requirement for most individuals. When it comes to vitamins and minerals the saying if a little is good for you a lot must be better does not apply. Ongoing research continues to refine the appropriate levels of vitamins and minerals required by men, women, children and adults.

While supplements are a convenient way of obtaining vitamins and minerals, they are a poor substitute for bad dietary habits. Taking a vitamin C supplement is not the same as eating broccoli, peppers, oranges or grapefruit. Vegetables and citrus fruits provide vitamin C, carbohydrates and dietary fiber. Vitamin C supplements provide zero energy and fiber. Another popular supplement is omega-3 fatty acids which is abundant in fatty fish. Eating fish provides omega-3 fatty acids and protein; the supplement provides zero protein. Vitamin and mineral supplements do not provide carbohydrates, protein, fat, fiber and micronutrients your body needs. Groups requiring supplements:

  • Are on a doctor supervised very low calorie diet
  • Can not or do not eat foods containing the vitamins and minerals they need
  • Do not eat enough of the foods containing the vitamins and minerals they need

 


 

Essential Vitamin & Mineral

Vitamin/Mineral RDA Function
Vitamin A 5000IU (men)
4000 IU (women)
Vision, teeth, skin
Vitamin B Complex   Helps convert food into energy
Health of heart, muscles, nervous system, skin, eyes, liver
Red blood cell production
Vitamin C 60 mg Blood vessels, connective tissues. Teeth & gums
Aids absorption of iron
Vitamin D 400 IU Aids absorption of calcium & phosphorous
Bones & teeth
Vitamin E 30 IU Formation of red blood cells
Healthy skin & hair
Vitamin K .1 mg Clotting, bone formation & repair
Iron 10 mg (men)
18 mg (women)
Hemoglobin
Calcium 800 mg (men)
800 mg (women)
Bones, muscle action
Phosphorous 800 mg (men)
800 mg (women)
Bones
Magnesium 250 mg (men)
400 mg (women)
Muscles action
Potassium1 2500 mg (men)
2500 mg (women)
Muscles
Sodium 2300 mg (men)
2300 mg (women)
Regulate blood pressure & blood volume
Muscle action and nerve function
Iodine 150 mcg (men)
150 mcg (women)
Converting food to energy
Thyroid hormones
Zinc 11 mg (men)
8 mg (women)
Vision, teeth, skin
Selenium 70 mcg (men)
55 mcg (women)
Formation of red blood cells
Healthy skin & hair
1 There is no RDA for potassium. National Library of Medicine recommendation.

Vitamins

Vitamin Soluble In RDA Sources Amount
A Fat 4000 IU (women)
5000IU (men)
Tomatoes 900 IU
      Eggs 1200
      Whitefish 2000
      Red peppers 4400
      Spinach 8100
      Carrots 11000
Thiamin (B1) Water 1.5 mg Mushrooms .10 mg/100 gm
      Avocado .11
      Eggs .17
      Walnuts .33
      Lentils .37
      Beans .68
      Soybeans 1.10
      Wheat germ 2.0
Riboflavin (B2) Water 1.7 mg Vegetables .12 mg/100 gm
      Fish .12
      Oats .14
      Broccoli .20
      Chicken .36
      almonds .92
Niacin (B3) Water 20 mg Eggs .20 mg/100 gm
      Fruit .60
      Vegetables .65
      Peaches .87
      Lentils 2.0
      Beans 2.4
      Rice 4.3
      Halibut 9.2
      Chicken 12.0
      Peanuts 17.0
Pantothenic Water 10 mg Blackberries .25 mg/100 gm
Acid (B5)     Cheeses .50
      Tuna .50
      Salmon .80
      Chicken .90
      Peas 3.6
      Lentils 4.8
      Rice 8.9
Pyridoxine (B6) Water 2.0 mg Spinach .28 mg/100 gm
      Pork .32
      Chicken .40
      Beans .57
      Tuna .90
      Lentils 1.7
      Rice 3.6
Cobalamin (B12) Water 6.0 mcg Beef .002 mg/100 gm
      Eggs .002
      Lamb .003
      Salmon .005
      Snapper .009
Folic Acid Water 400 mcg Bananas .030 mg/100 gm
      Beef .04
      Broccoli .05
      Spinach .08
      Rice .17
      Beans .31
      Oats .39
Biotin Water .5 mg Halibut .01 mg/100 gm
      Turkey .01
      Chicken .011
      Salmon .015
      Beans .017
      Eggs .02
      Pecans .03
      Lentils .042
      Green peas .042
      Rice .07
Lipoic Acid     Made by your body  
Amygdalin (B17) Water 300 mg Almonds 15 mg/100 gm
      Navy beans 34
      White lima beans 170
      Green lima beans 1700
C (Ascorbic Acid) Water 60 mg Apricots 10 mg/100 gm
      Banana 10
      Onions 10
      Squash 22
      Tomatoes 23
      Cantaloupe 33
      Spinach 51
      Green peppers 110
      Parsley 170
D Fat 400 IU Obtained from exposure to sunlight 2 mg/100 gm

    Broccoli3   Spinach5   Cashews5   Cod liver oil14   Olive oil21EFat30 IUCorn oil KFat.1 mgCorn.01 mg/100 gm

 

Mineral

Mineral RDA
(Males)
RDA
(Females)
Sources Amount(mg/100gm) Amount Absorbed
Iron 10 mg 18 mg PotatoesTunaSalmonRicePeasChickenCorn

Eggs

Beans

Barley

Pork

Spinach

Beef

Wheat

Oats

Almonds

Walnuts

Lentils

Garbanzo

 

1.11.31.41.61.71.82.1

2.2

2.7

2.7

2.9

3.1

3.1

3.5

4.5

4.7

6.0

6.7

6.9

 

6 %
Calcium 800 mg 800 mg PorkLambBeefTomatoesChickenOrangesOates

Peas

Spinach

Walnuts

Swiss Chard

Cow’s Milk

Lentils

Beans

Almonds

Cheese

 

10111212123053

70

93

99

100

120

130

130

230

700

 

>90%
Phosphorus 800 mg 800 mg PlumsWineTomatoesMushroomsCow’s MilkBeefEggs

Rice

Pork

Halibut

Chicken

Garbanzo

Tuna

Wheat

Lentils

Salmon

Peas/Beans

Oats

Pine Nuts

610226893190200

220

230

250

290

330

350

380

380

400

400

410

600

>90%
Magnesium 350 mg 400 mg TomatoesCarrotsChickenBeefPorkHalibutVegetables

Potatoes

Tuna

Salmon

Spinach

Rice

Oats

13181923232325

27

29

40

57

120

140

50%
Potassium1 2500 mg 2500 mg YogurtTeaCoffeePlumsCheesePearsApples

Eggs

Cow’s Milk

Tuna

Fruit

Cabbage

Cantaloupe

Corn

Pork

Vegetables

Oats

Banana

Beef

Potatoes

Chicken

Walnuts

Salmon

Halibut

Lentils

Garbanzo

Peas

Beans

2025366380100110

130

140

180

200

230

250

280

290

300

350

370

370

410

430

460

510

530

590

800

1000

1200

90%
Sodium 2300 mg 2300 mg Rock saltSea SaltEggsCelerySpinachBeefPork

Fish

Cow’s Milk

Yogurt

Peas

Lentils

Vegetables

Potatoes

Tomatoes

Water

390003000012075716057

50

47

47

35

30

10

4

3

.6

>90%
Iodine 150 mcg 150 mcg CornTomatoesBell PeppersFruitTunaGrainsBeef

Cow’s milk

Spinach

Cheese

Potatoes

Halibut

Beans

Sea salt

Shrimp

Cod

Iodized salt

.001.001.001.002.002.004.006

.007

.009

.01

.02

.04

.10

.10

.13

.14

10

>95%
Zinc 11 mg 8 mg SalmonRiceEggsPeasBeansBeetsBeef

Corn

Wheat

Pork

Oats

Chicken

1.41.52.12.32.42.83.0

3.1

3.2

3.4

3.7

4.8

40%
Selenium 70 mcg 55 mcg TomatoesBarleyBeetsChickenOnionsPeasBeans

Wheat

Corn

.06.06.07.07.08.12.12

.13

.40

60%
1 There is no RDA for potassium. National Library of Medicine recommendation.